12/29/2007

Fulling block (kinuta)

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Fulling block (kinuta)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: All Autumn
***** Category: Humanity


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Explanation


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Fulling blocks are wooden mallets used to beat the washing to get it dry and soft during the Edo period. They also gave a special shine to the beaten cloth. They were hit on a wooden block or on stone, sometimes near the river where the washing was one. "Pounding cloth" is another translation of this activity.
This is one of the evening jobs of a farming family, called "night work" yonabe, see below.

The name KINUTA seems to have derived from kinu ita 衣板, a board for beating silk.

This kind of mallet is also used for other material to make it soft for processing into goods, as in the kigo for straw, paper and arrow root. This kind of work was often done in the dark evenings by the farmers wifes, since they had so many other jobs to do during daytime light.
fulling-block
Gabi Greve






kinuta . . .
chirps of the crickets
between beats


- Shared by Elaine Andre -


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fulling block, washing mallet, kinuta 砧 (きぬた)
hitting with the mallet, kinuta utsu 衣打つ(ころもうつ)
hitting cloth with a mallet, toui 擣衣(とうい)

using the washing mallet in the evening, yuu kinuta 夕砧(ゆうきぬた)
..... yoi kinuta 宵砧(よいきぬた)
..... sayo kinuta 小夜砧(さよきぬた)

hearing the beating sound of a washing mallet from afar
too kinuta 遠砧(とおきぬた)
fulling block mallet, kinuta no tsuchi 砧の槌(きぬたのつち)

block for the mallet, kinuta ban 砧盤(きぬたばん)


mallet for beating straw, wara kinuta 藁砧(わらきぬた)
To make the straw softer for processing into goods like straw sandals or straw raincoats in the Edo period.


Other uses for hitting material to make it softer and workable:

mallet for hitting paper, kami kinuta 紙砧(かみきぬた)
mallet for hitting arrow root, kuzu kinuta 葛砧(くずきぬた)


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Traditional "ironing" in Korea and Japan

In Korea the drumming of traditional ironing sticks was traditionally called a joyful sound. Even though it didn't please all ears, it was a symbol of a secure home life. In Japan the beating of a single mallet pounding fabric smooth was associated with melancholy - in poetry at least. In Korea two women knelt on the floor, facing each other across a smoothing stone or tatumi-tol, a pangmangi club in each hand, beating out a rhythm on the cloth. This kind of "ironing" looks more solitary in Japanese art, where a woman kneels alone before a fulling block or kinuta and hammers with a single mallet. ...

The Japanese fulling-block and Korean smoothing-stone, like so many other tools used in pressing cloth, had their uses in manufacturing new cloth as well as in maintaining laundered fabric. (Fulling involves beating the fibres to make the cloth thicker and/or softer.)

Read the full article with photos HERE
 © www.oldandinteresting.com


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CLICK for original LINK © www.internationalfolkart.org

The woman pounding cloth on a fulling block is the heroine of a Noh play.
The wife strikes the block throughout the night hoping that the sound will reach him in the distance and hasten his return.
The idea is based on a Tang dynasty Chinese poem in which the sound of cloth being beaten by his wife reaches the ears of a man far from home.
 © www.internationalfolkart.org


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kinuta odori 砧踊り fulling-block dance


明日は殿御(とのご)の砧打ち 明日は殿御の砧打ち
御方姫御(おかたひめご)も出てうたへ

砧踊りは面白や 砧踊りを一踊り

Tomorrow is fulling-block time for the Lord!
Tomorrow is fulling-block time for the Lord!
The Lady will also come out to sing.

The fulling-block dance is so funny!
Come on,let us dance the fulling-block dance!

source : 青柳



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Worldwide use


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Things found on the way



CLICK for more photos

Noh Drama "The Fulling Block" Kinuta
能 砧

A woman whose husband has spent three years in the capital hears that he will return at the end of the year, but is later informed that he is unable to return, leading to her insanity from disappointment, loneliness, and hatred and eventually to her death.
The husband, upon learning of this, returns and ritually summons her ghost, which appears in an embittered mood and expresses resentment for having suffered in Hell; through the power of the Lotus Sutra, however, she eventually attains peace.

More information



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HAIKU



砧打て我に聞かせよや坊が妻
kinuta uchite ware ni kikase yo ya boo ga tsuma

pounding cloth
for me to hear ...
the wife of the priest

Tr. Gabi Greve

Matsuo Basho 芭蕉
Basho spent the night in a temple lodging.
From: Bleached Bones in a Field
. Matsuo Basho in Yoshino .


beat the fullilng block,
make me hear it -
temple wife

Tr. Barnhill


Strike the fulling block
let me hear it!
temple mistress

Tr. Shirane


Женщина из храма,
бей по валочной доске -
ну же, посильней!

МАЦУО БАСЁ (1644-1694) / Tr. D. Smirnov

quote
Basho was in Yoshino, rich in poetic and religious traditions. Clothes were pounded on a fulling block to clean and soften them, and in the poetic tradition the sound was associated with loneliness. The fulling block was not commonly used in Basho ’s time, but he wishes to hear its sound in order to feel deeply what was considered the essential nature of Yoshino in autumn.
There is an allusion to a waka by Fujiwara Masatsune (1170–1221):

At Yoshino
the mountain wind
deepens into the night,
and in the old village
a fulling block is struck


(miyoshino no / yama no akikaze / sayo fukete
furusato samuku / koromo utsunari).

Tr. and Comment by Barnhill
source : www.haikupedia.ru


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声澄みて北斗にひびく砧かな
koe sumite hokuto ni hibiku kinuta kana

its sound clear,
echoing to the Northern Stars:
a fulling block

Tr. Barnhill


This hokku has the cut marker KANA at the end of line 3.

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猿引は猿の小袖を砧哉
saru hiki wa saru no kosode o kinuta kana

a monkey showman
with a little monkey jacket
on a fulling block

Tr. Barnhill

Written in 貞亨元年, Basho age 41 or later


a monkey trainer
pounds (cloth) for a little monkey coat
on the fulling block . . .

Tr. Gabi Greve

. WKD : saruhiki 猿曳 、猿引 monkey trainer.



. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


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- - - - - Kobayashi Issa - - - - -


えた町も夜はうつくしき砧哉
eta mura mo yo wa utsukushiki kinuta kana

in the outcasts' village too
a lovely night...
pounding cloth


Sakuo Nakamura writes, "In my native town there is an eta village; mothers tell their children not to enter there. Issa has a very peaceful mind. He know well the sadness of living. When he saw the Eta village in the night, not only darkness covered, but racial discrimination as well. And he heard the sound of the kinuta as if it came from Buddha."

In Japan and Korea, fulling-blocks were used to pound fabric and bedding. The fabric was laid over a flat stone, covered with paper, and pounded with sticks, making a distinctive sound. This haiku refers to the outcasts (eta). In Issa's time, they performed "unclean" jobs such as disposing of dead animals, working with leather, and executing criminals. In my earlier translation, I use the phrase, "fulling-block," an arcane term that means nothing to most English readers. "Pounding cloth" is a translation solution provided by Makoto Ueda, whose example I gratefully follow; Matsuo Bashô (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1982) 53.


砧打夜より雨ふる榎哉
kinuta utsu yo yori ame furu enoki kana

pounding cloth
in the night...
rain on the nettle tree



故郷や寺の砧も夜の雨
furusato ya tera no kinuta mo yoru no ame

home village--
pounding cloth at the temple
and evening rain



唐の吉野もかくや小夜ぎぬた
morokoshi no yoshino mo kaku ya sayo-ginuta

like in Old China
Yoshino, too, clonks...
cloth-pounding


In Japan and Korea (and--we see in this haiku--Old China), fulling-blocks were used to pound fabric and bedding. The fabric was laid over a flat stone, covered with paper, and pounded, making a distinctive sound. For Issa, the sound evokes a nostalgic feeling. Yoshino is a famous place (in Japan) for viewing the cherry blossoms.

Tr. David Lanoue / Read MORE !


More of Issa's haiku about pounding cloth, using
Onomatopoetic Words !



is even the Yoshino
in China like this?
fulling cloth at night


snip
Issa alludes to a number of classical poems in order to praise other mountains and thus strengthen his case that tonight the mountains around him are surely even more moving. There is of course no Mt. Yoshino in China. It is hyperbole for the most remote place in the world, a phrase made famous by waka no. 1049 by Fujiwara Tokihira in the courtly Kokinshuu anthology:

morokoshi no yoshino no yama ni komoru to mo
okuremu to omou ware naranaku ni

even if you
seclude yourself in
Mt. Yoshino in China
I will follow after
the whole way


snip
Later the image was often interpreted to mean "the Chinese equivalent of Mt. Yoshino," and in Travel Record of a Weather-Bleached Skeleton (Nozarashi kikou) Basho writes that the holy men who secluded themselves on Mt. Yoshino and wrote poems there felt that the Chinese equivalent of Mt. Yoshino was Mt. Lu, where many monks and poets retired.

. Chris Drake - the full comment .


. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .


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- - - - - Yosa Buson - - - - -


このふた日砧聞えぬ隣かな 
kono futahi kinuta kikoenu tonari kana

the last two days
no sound of beating cloth
from the neighbours . . .

Tr. Gabi Greve



遠近をちこちとうつきぬた哉
ochikochi ochikochi to utsu kinuta kana

near and far
here and there the beating sound
of fulling blocks . . .

Tr. Gabi Greve


Buson uses the Chinese characters and hiragana type of spelling words in a masterly way. This is one of the language forms of haiku that just can not be captured in a translation.
The cut marker KANA is at the end of line 3.

- Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村  (1716-1783)


- - - more kinuta hokku by Buson


貴人(あてびと)の岡に立ち聞く砧かな - atebito no

小路行けば近く聞ゆる砧かな - kooji ikeba

霧深き広野に千々の砧かな - kiri fukaki

砧聞きに月の吉野に入る身かな - kinuta kiku

比叡にかよふ麓の家の砧かな - Hiei ni kayou

旅人に我家知らるる砧かな - tabibito ni

憂き我に砧うて今は又止みね - uki-ware ni


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Related words

***** nightwork, evening at home, yonabe
夜業 (夜なべ)
..... yagyoo 夜業
..... yoshigoto 夜仕事

... tawara ami 俵網 (たわらあみ) making straw bags
komedawara amu 米俵編む(こめだわらあむ)making straw bags for rice
sumidawara amu 炭俵編む(すみだわらあむ) making straw bags for charcoal



Yonabe night work and the pounding of cloth reminds the Japanese of the hometown, home village ...

FURUSATO haiku
ふるさと 故郷、古里 故里 郷土 郷里



***** Mallet for good luck, (fuku-tsuchi 福槌)
kigo for the New Year

You hammer your straw, make straw sandals out of it, sell them and voila, you are a rich man.
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5 comments:

anonymous said...

utterly rhythmless
at my house!
night cloth-pounding

fubyooshi wa tashika waga ya zo sayo-ginuta
不拍子はたしか我家ぞ小夜砧
by Issa, 1817

In this haiku, Issa comments on the lack of rhythm in the cloth-pounding at his house--a comic jab at his wife Kiku or at himself?

Tr. David Lanoue

facebook said...

The haiku by Issa is charming; it sounds like the owl might
try to match his hoots with the beatings of the fulling block.
M.

Anonymous said...

a clear blue sky
at high noon...
pounding cloth

seiten no mappiru naka no kinuta kana

.晴天の真昼中のきぬた哉

by Issa, 1821

In Japan and Korea, fulling-blocks were used to pound fabric and bedding. The fabric was laid over a flat stone, covered with paper, and pounded, making a distinctive sound.
In my earlier translation, I use the phrase, "fulling-block," an arcane term that means nothing to most English readers. "Pounding cloth" is a translation solution provided by Makoto Ueda, whose example I gratefully follow; Matsuo Bashô (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1982) 53.

Tr. David Lanoue
.

Anonymous said...

小夜砧見かねて猫のうかれけり
sayo-ginuta mikanete neko no ukare keri

pounding cloth at night--
the cat that can't stand it
happy-go-lucky

by Issa, 1816

In Japan and Korea, fulling-blocks were used to pound fabric and bedding. The fabric was laid over a flat stone, covered with paper, and pounded, making a distinctive sound. In my earlier translation, I use the phrase, "fulling-block," an arcane term that means nothing to most English readers.
"Pounding cloth" is a translation solution provided by Makoto Ueda, whose example I gratefully follow; Matsuo Bashô (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1982) 53.
Shinji Ogawa notes that ukare keri means "become cheerful." He visualizes the scene: "I think that Issa, when he saw the cat become playful, traced the cause back to the weariness of the fulling-block. The main theme of the fulling-block has been weariness, a symbol of life's hard reality." In light of Shinji's observation, I wonder: Is the cat Issa?

Tr. David Lanoue
.

Translating Haiku Forum - Gabi Greve said...

sayo-ginuta mikanete neko no ukare keri


Translations by Larry Bole

pounding cloth at night--
the cat that can't stand it
goes out carousing

or maybe

pounding cloth at night--
the cat who can't bear to watch
tries to cheer me up

Read more:
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/translatinghaiku/message/3587