3/26/2009

Twilight (kure)

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Twilight, dusk (kure)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: various, see below
***** Category: Season


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Explanation




بین ما
دریا و رَد غروب
گذرگاه موسی

between us,
the sea and dusk trace
Moses' crossing


- Shared by Massih Talebian -


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kure 暮れ (pronounced ...gure in compounds) just like this means the end of something, for example a day, a season or even the year.

In old Japanese haru no kure / aki no kure ... was used to mean the end of spring/autumn as the season ends (oogure おおぐれ【大暮れ】).
kogure (小暮) "small ending" referred to the end of a double-hour according to the old calendar.



higure 日暮れ toward evening, evening twilight
yuugure 夕暮れ evening twilight

In the case of the end of a day, as we are concerned about here, it can be translated as
twilight, end of the day, dusk, dusk falls
nightfall, getting dark, toward evening
(we might find more words expressing this situation)

Even SUNSET has been used as a translation, but we have sunset (yuuhi) as a different topic for Japanese haiku, see below.
The same holds for "day getting longer", see below.



kuremutsu 暮れ六つ; 暮六つ six o'clock at night
in Edo

. akemutsu 明け六つ six in the morning .


Here I will only use the word "twilight" for KURE/GURE in further translations.


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kigo for all spring

They all have a feeling of joy, since days will be getting longer from now on.

chikitsu 遅日 ちじつ "day getting longer"
(this is the kidai, main entry for the following:)

osoki hi 遅き日(おそきひ)"day getting longer"
yuunagashi 夕長し(ゆうながし)long evening
shunjitsu chichi 春日遅々(しゅんじつちち)spring day getting longer


kure ososhi 暮遅し(くれおそし) long twilight,
twilight getting longer
"dusk is lingering"

kure kanuru 暮れかぬる(くれかぬる)long twilight, twilight getting longer

Here the stress is not so much on the day getting longer, but the feeling of a longer evening time. It is already used in the Manyo'shu Poem collection to state the joy of longer evenings.


haru no kure 春の暮 . 春暮 twilight in spring
spring evening
haru no yuugure 春の夕暮れ
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


haru hakubo 春薄暮(はるはくぼ)twilight in spring
evening in spring
Abenddämmerung im Frühling

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natsu no kure 夏の暮(なつのくれ)
twilight in summer

natsu no yuube 夏の夕 (なつのゆう) evening in summer
natsu yuube 夏夕べ(なつゆうべ) summer evening

kigo for all summer


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They all have a feeling of melancholy, since days will be getting shorter from now on.

. Autumn dusk, autumn twilight (aki no kure 秋の暮れ) Japan
autumn nightfall, autumn evening, autumn eve
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


"Autumn means sunset (dusk)" (aki wa yuugure)
This quotation stresses the importance of twilight for the autumn season.


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dusk comes early, kure hayashi 明早し
twilight comes early

fuyu no kure 冬の暮 (ふゆのくれ ) twilight in winter
kanbo 寒暮(かんぼ)"cold twilight"
fuyu no yuube 冬の夕(ふゆのゆうべ) winter evening
..... fuyu no yoi冬の宵(ふゆのよい)winter evening

kigo for all winter



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twilight TOPICS used in haiku

atarayo あたらよ【可惜夜】a night you do not want to end
atarashi あたらし【可惜し/惜し】(poetic form)

hakubo はくぼ【薄暮】twilight, dusk
only used in the evening for "light darkness".

sayo さよ【小夜】"small evening"
often used in combination, sometimes with kigo (sayo suzumi 小夜涼み)
sayo shigure .. sleet in the evening
sayo chidori

yahan, yohan やはん【夜半】midnight
yahan no aki 夜半の秋... midnight in autumn (kigo)

yoi よい【宵】evening
yoiyamu, getting dark in the evening
used with the proper season word as a combined kigo, see above.

yosari よさり【夜さり】time when it gets evening
sari means something is coming

yuugata ゆうがた (夕方) evening
yuumagure ゆうまぐれ【夕間暮れ】
magure means 目(ま)暗(ぐれ)」, when it gets dark for the eyes to see things.
yuugure ゆうぐれ


oomagatoki おおまがとき【大禍時】
a time when something bad (maga) might occur
... ou ma ga toki 逢(お)う魔が時
... tasogaredoki たそがれどき, 黄昏

In former times there were no street lights and it was difficult to see the faces of poeple when you walked. Still not yet the time for a lantern to find your way. So when people met, they would exchange a greeting: Taso kare wa? 誰そ、彼は (dare daroo, are wa?) . Taso kare ... became tasogare in the course of time, now loaded with the feeling of loneliness and melancholy.

CLICK for more tasogare
tasogare たそがれどき

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The above impressions about TWILIGHT are seen from the poetic, emotional side of the Japanese haiku poets.
They show us the aspect that
kigo are conventions for writing Japanese poetry!


Now we get to the scientific part.

quote
The Duration of Twilight

Twilight is that period of dusk after sunset or dawn before sunrise during which the sky is partially lit by atmospheric scattering of sunlight.
The duration of twilight after sunset or before sunrise depends on atmospheric conditions (clouds, dust, air pressure, temperature, humidity) and on the parallactic angle (the angle between the path of the setting or rising sun and the local horizon), both of which vary with the seasons (specifically the solar declination) and the terrestrial latitude.

If the duration of twilight is expressed in terms of mean solar minutes (normal clock time), then seasonal variations are evident for all locales, with the shortest twilight durations a few days before the spring equinox and a few days after the fall equinox, and the longest twilight durations near the summer solstice, with a lesser maximum of durations near the winter solstice.

If the duration of twilight is expressed in terms of daytime temporal minutes (the time span from sunrise to sunset divided into 720 equal portions), then each stage is almost constant and minimal in duration throughout the spring and summer, except near the equator and high latitudes, the shortest twilight durations are 2-3 weeks after the spring equinox and 2-3 weeks before the fall equinox, and the longest twilight durations are near the winter solstice.

If the duration of twilight is expressed in terms of daytime temporal minutes (the time span from sunrise to sunset divided into 720 equal portions), then each stage is almost constant and minimal in duration throughout the spring and summer, except near the equator and high latitudes, the shortest twilight durations are 2-3 weeks after the spring equinox and 2-3 weeks before the fall equinox, and the longest twilight durations are near the winter solstice.

If the duration of twilight is expressed in terms of daytime or night time temporal minutes (whichever is longer), then each stage is almost constant in duration all year round, except near the equator and high latitudes.
The switchover date for "whichever is longer" occurs a few days before the spring equinox and a few days after the fall equinox, when the actual lengths of daytime and night time are truly equal.
Read the details here
 © individual.utoronto.ca/


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Worldwide use

long twilight, long dusk

kure ososhi (Le soleil tarde à se coucher)
kure kanuru (Le soleil tarde à se coucher)

Haiku poets in the world have placed this in spring, summer and autumn ...
so this makes for a great nature word,
but not a specific season word.
topic for worldwide haiku
You have to add the season to make it specific if it is not ment to be spring.


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KURE in German, auf Deutsch

Abend, Abendzeit, Abend werden
Abenddämmerung; dämmern
Eintritt der Dunkelheit; dunkel werden
Einbruch der Nacht


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Things found on the way



Remember

kure no haru 暮の春 くれのはる end of the spring season


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HAIKU


夕暮は鐘を力や寺の秋 
yuugure wa kane o chikara ya tera no aki

the evening dusk
enhances the power of the bell -
autumn in the temple

Tr. Gabi Greve

. Itoo Fuukoku 伊藤風國 Ito Fukoku .
(? - 1701)


the sound of the bell at dusk
gives me strength -
a temple in autumn


Kyorai's corrected version suggests that with the approach of evening, the noisy crowds have left the temple and the poet is left with a feeling of loneliness, which is diminished or obscured by the sound of the evening temple bells, which give him emotional strength.

Tr. Haruo Shirane


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酒倉を杜氏と歩く春の暮
sakagura o tooji to aruku haru nokure

Die Abenddämmerung des Frühlings -
Im Reisweinkeller gehe ich
mit dem Touji. (Reisweinbrenner,-brauer)

NAGATA Koui 永田耕衣(1900~1997)
übersetzt : SAITOH Kentarou)


I walk in the ricewine cellar
with the brew master -
spring twilight

Tr. Gabi Greve


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しらなみは珊瑚環礁暮れ遅し
shiranami wa sango kanhsoo kure ososhi

Weiße Wellen liegen
auf dem Koralenriff.
Der Tag vergeht langsam.

FUBASAMI Fusae 文挟夫佐恵(1914~)
übersetzt : TAGUCHI Makiko)


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lilac dusk

lilac dusk-
she gathers her hair
into a long plait


- Shared by Arvinder Kaur -
Joys of Japan, 2012



lilac scented dusk ~
cool wet grass between my toes ~
sweet spring rain


- Margaret's haiku -





Lilac dusk.
Through the park’s woods
the moon drains milk.


HAIK KLUBI SHQIPTAR
- terejalibraartikujesse -


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غروب تابستان
زیر خوشهء گندم
چشم حَوا

summer dusk
beneath the wheat ears
Eve's eye


- Shared by Massih Talebian -
Joys of Japan, 2012



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Related words

***** Long days (hinaga), long nights (nagaki yo)



***** Sunset (yuuhi) Japan



***** . Seasons coming to an end .
end of spring, spring's end, spring comes to a close
kure no haru 暮の春 (くれのはる)
kure no natsu 暮の夏(くれのなつ)end of summer


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